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Guide

This program is designed to create an awareness of different types of oppression, and its effects, within society and the campus community.  The primary goal of the project is to create an experiential program for students, staff and faculty.  The program is supposed to challenge the senses and feeling of participants in a safe environment.  After going through the experience, participants will process what they experienced with trained professional counselors.

Two Identity development theories that can assist while going through the Tunnel. 

Identity Development: Stages of Racialized and Ethnic Identity Development People of Color [Source: William Cross, Shades of Black: Diversity in African American Identity, cited in Beverly Daniel Tatum, Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria? (NY: Basic Books, 1997), adapted and elaborated by Lisa Sung** (2/2002)]

 

STAGE

SELF-PERCEPTION

STANCE TOWARD DOMINANT GROUP

STANCE TOWARD CO-ETHNICS**

TYPICAL PERCEPTIONS/EXPRESSIONS

Pre-Encounter.
Limited consciousness of self as “other.”

Has absorbed the images, beliefs, values of dominant group. Considers self as “colorblind” and the world as “raceless.” Views the world individualistically and relationally; unaware of significance of group.

Identifies with and seeks acceptance among the dominant group by down-playing aspects associated with the dominated group.

Disinterest; distance. Co-ethnics may reject him/her because of assimilation to the dominant group.

“Don’t call me ___.I’m American.”
“we’re all just people.”
“Just treat me as the individual I am.”
“____ are so uncool.”
“Why do they only stick to themselves?”

Encounter.
Impact of (usually negative) categorization is felt.

If positive encounter: surprised by perceived differences. If negative encounter: feels devalued and rejected; now unsure of own identity and community. Earlier beliefs about equality, “liberty and justice for all” shaken.

Hurt, anger, confusion. May develop an “oppositional identity, both protecting self and keeping the dominant group at a distance. Invalidating responses result in further disengagement

Openness to reconsidering the significance of ethnicity.

“My color wasn’t supposed to matter, but clearly it does matter to them after all.”
“She’s different – how could she be proud of being Black?”

Immersion/Emersion
Begins the search for positive identity concept.

Redefining self.

Little interest in developing relationships outside the group; outsiders are irrelevant.

Joins peer group, which becomes the new social network. Seeks positive images and history; surrounds self with symbols of identity.

“Black is beautiful.”
“whites are so uptight.”

Internalization.
Possesses a positive sense of identity.

The new identity is integrated into the self-concept and affirmed; a new sense of security results.

Willing to establish meaningful relationships across group boundaries with those who respect the new self-definition.

The ethnic identity and ethnic social network are consciously embraced.

“Say it strong and say it loud: I’m Black and I’m proud!”

Internalization-

Commitment.

Ongoing actions

express a concern for

one’s group.

“Emissary”: sees own

achievements as

advancing the group’s

cause.

Prepared to cross and

transcend group

boundaries regularly

as an emissary.

Willing to act as

spokesperson and

advocate for the

group. Prepared to

function more

effectively in diverse

settings.

“I can learn from both

Latinos and Whites.”

 

Identity Development: Stages of Racialized and Ethnic Identity Development White Identity [Source: William Cross, Shades of Black: Diversity in African American Identity,cited in Beverly Daniel Tatum, Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria? (NY: Basic Books, 1997), adapted and elaborated by Lisa Sung ** (2/2002)]

 

STAGE

SELF-PERCEPTION

STANCE TOWARD DOMINANT GROUP

STANCE TOWARD CO-ETHNICS**

TYPICAL PERCEPTIONS/EXPRESSIONS

[Pre-Contact &]

Contact.**

“Normal”: no particular

culture or ethnicity. Sees

self as a person of

goodwill, unprejudiced,

colorblind. Views

persons and the world

individualistically and

relationally; unaware of

significance of group.

“Normal.” Sees own

community as

possessing goodwill,

unprejudiced, colorblind.

Racism is deliberate and

overt: acts of hostility or

discrimination, or hate

crimes committed by

certain individuals.

Disinterest or naïve

curiosity about ethnic or

cultural differences.

“I don’t have an ethnicity;

I’m American.”

“I don’t see why they keep

focusing on our differences;

underneath, we’re all the

same.”

“Why do they always stick

to themselves?”

“I don’t think of you as ___;

you’re just you.”

“Some of my best friends

are ___.”

Disintegration.

Becomes aware of

racism’s impact on one’s

own and others’ lives.

Earlier beliefs about

equality, “liberty and

justice for all” shaken.

Feelings of guilt and

shame about historical

oppression and about

one’s own status in light

of White privilege.

Anger. Tempted to

distance self from

confronting the issues

and one’s upbringing

and community. May

retreat into silence, or

may become

overzealous.

Sees impact of racism in

life of associate or

friend. May react by

trying to dissociate

completely from own

group and to become

“adopted” by people of

color.

“I’m not like most

Whites; I’m a very fair,

compassionate person.”

“I can’t stand his jokes

any longer.”

“People are telling me to

lighten up.”

Reintegration.

Feelings of tension and

guilt may be denied by

blaming the victim and

reasserting the cultural

myths of rugged

individualism and of

pure meritocracy.

Sides with and justifies

the actions of own group

and the pursuit of group

interests.

Defensive; blames the

sinned-against for their

current predicament and

problems.

“I’m not responsible for

society or the hate of a

few.”

“Everybody can succeed if

they just work hard, so they

have only themselves to

blame.”

“There’s no race problem

today—there are only

agitators.”

Pseudo-independent.

Understands cognitively

the problem of White

privilege, but unsure of

what to do about it.

May develop “aversive racism”: wants the ideals

of equality and racial

tolerance, yet unwilling

to confront own

racialized biases and

racialized privilege.

Tends to overlook and rationalize racializing

biases and actions

perpetuating White

privilege, by 1) denying

that prejudice exists; or

2) citing other reasons.

May try escaping White-ness by associating with

people of color; in the

college years, usually

rebuffed by those in the

Encounter or Immersion/

Emersion stages.

“I accept all minorities; everyone should.”

“I’ve known him for years;

there’s not a prejudiced

bone in his body.”

“I just don’t feel comfortable

around her.”

“I don’t think he’d fit in

around here.”

Immersion/

Emersion.

a) Ethnic.**

b) Racialized**

Ethnic. Becomes

interested in recovering

knowledge of family

roots, ethnic heritage.

Racialized. Wants to

develop a positive selfconcept

as a White in

light of the historical and

contemporary reality of

White privilege.

Ethnic. Begins search

for ethnic & cultural

background(s).

Racialized. Identifies

with Whites who

historically allied themselves

with people of

color in combating

racism. Develops

relationships for support

and processing.

If successful in forming

relationships with people

of color, may benefit

from their outside

perspective and

comparison.

“I don’t know anything

about my ethnicity or

culture; I feel a little

cheated. Why didn’t my

family keep it alive?”

“If I really start speaking

up about racism, I might

start losing friends over

it. Do I really want to get

into it with them?”

Autonomy.

Has developed a

positive identity based

in reality (vs. a

culturally based

presumed superiority).

Positive views of

European American

ethnic identity and of

Whiteness are

internalized. Makes a

commitment to oppose

racism.

Committed to act and

advocate for justice for

people of color, by

seeking to dismantle

White privilege and by

working for full inclusion.

Committed to act and to

advocate for justice and

to work to empower

people of color for full

participation and

contribution.

 

“I can learn from both

Latinos and Whites.”

* This model does not suggest that all persons proceed through all stages; rather, it outlines the steps and eventual outcome of full identity development for those who engage the issues and pursue the process (especially during the college years).

** Neither Cross nor Tatum define or distinguish ethnic and racialized identity. Nor do they use the terminology “people of color,” “coethnics,”“racialization,” or “pre-contact” in their presentation. Also, “Ethnic Immersion/Emersion” has been added to Cross’s model.